MySQL Type Horrors

Although it is possible to demonstrate the problem in another DB system, I have deliberately chosen MySQL for this article because it literally lends itself to this kind of errors.


A small, but powerful example. Just by looking at this you may guess that this post may have something to do with case sensitivity, but as you will see the problems go much deeper. Continue reading “MySQL Type Horrors”

Contradiction in Database [2]

The previous post focused on a contradiction in general; in this one I present a specific example using PostgreSQL.


Starting with a predicate:
[p_1] Country named (CNAME) is assigned country code (CC2) and number (CID).

Country {CID, CC2, CNAME}
    KEY {CID}

Country (CID, CC2,  CNAME   )
      { (1,  'CA', 'Canada' )
      , (2,  'FR', 'France' )
      , (3,  'DE', 'Germany')
      , (4,  'DE', 'Denmark') -- typo

Take a look at the sketch and the DLL. This is a common find: the ID is used as a primary key and there are no other constraints.

Consider the tuple with CID = 4; it has a wrong country code for Denmark, which results in a contradiction. From tuples with CID = 3 and CID = 4 it follows:

  • Country code DE is assigned to country named Germany.
  • Country code DE is assigned to country named Denmark.

In this case the contradiction is a result of the typo and Continue reading “Contradiction in Database [2]”

Contradiction in Database [1]

Suppose you have a database, of any type: SQL, NoSQL, not-yet-SQL, a spreadsheet, a bunch of CSV files, or a shoebox full of post-it notes.

I would argue that the database represents a bag (multiset) of facts; even if it does not look like that, it can be verbalized as such.

Let’s name this bag of facts: Γ.

Consider a case when two of these facts contradict each other.
Suppose that in Γ we find a fact: today is Monday; then another fact that states: today is Friday. Let’s see if I can formalize this:

A = Today is Monday.
B = Today is Friday.

        B ⊢ ¬A   Γ ⊢ B
        ----------------- (e1)
Γ ⊢ A   Γ ⊢ ¬A
------------------------- (i1)
Γ ⊢ (A ∧ ¬A)

Continue reading “Contradiction in Database [1]”